Following up from the excellent post by Pete Hodgson on Retiring Your Flags, and his presentation at the Meetup we recently sponsored, I wanted to dive into how Split plays a role in managing your flag debt.
Feature flags (aka toggles, flips, gates, or switches) are a software delivery concept that separates feature release from code deployment. In plain terms, it’s a way to deploy a piece of code in production while restricting access — through configuration—to only a subset of users. They offer a powerful way to turn code ideas into immediate outcomes, without breaking anything in the meantime.
Feature flagging is a critical enabler for continuous delivery. Teams working on a shared branch need a way to keep the codebase in a stable state while still making changes. They need a way to prevent a half-finished feature going live to users in the next production deployment. Feature flags provided that capability. The success of continuous delivery has thus resulted in widespread adoption of feature flags in the industry.
The Problem – Flag Debt
As Pete talks about, because of their versatility, their usage spreads throughout the product and engineering team. I would like to elaborate on the issues engineering teams typically face, based on our experience at Split working with our customers.
When every feature release is gated by a flag, over time the number of flags accumulates as older flags are left in the code and not retired (i.e. removed from code). I refer to such old flags as ‘flag debt’. Flag debt leads to a number of problems, such as:
1. Code Readability
Feature flags are implemented as if-else statements within the code. Here is an example:
if myFeature == "on" # do something else # do something else end
With hundreds of such if-else statements strewn across the code, many that were added months or even years ago, the code gets less readable and testable, which slows down the engineering team’s development cadence.
2. Loss of Institutional Memory
If an engineer responsible for a flag leaves the company, she takes the institutional memory of the flag and its feature with her. As time passes, no one knows what the flag does, why was it created, or whether the flag could be retired. Without a clear owner, the flag becomes flag debt, staying in the code into perpetuity.
3. Accidental Misconfiguration of Flag
If an engineer accidentally turns off a flag from the ‘flag debt’ group, customer experience will be disrupted in unpredictable ways. In the best case, customers will be cut off from a feature they rely on. In worst case, the ‘else’ branch of the flag may not be valid anymore. It may make a service call that is no longer supported or write to the database with an unsupported schema. This may lead to exceptions, data corruption, or the entire product – not just the feature – failing to load for a customer.
How to Reduce Flag Debt
Clearly, flag debt hygiene is critical to the successful use of feature flags. In Pete’s talk and blog post, he summarizes a number of strategies for maintaining a manageable number of flags in your code. I would like to walk through his recommendations, explain how we see customers approach these strategies, and provide another recommendation of my own.
1. Create a cleanup ticket when you create the flag
At a bare minimum, a common sense approach to managing flag debt is to create a cleanup ticket for the flag in your issue tracking system (e.g. Jira) at the same time when you introduce that flag in the code.
Assign the cleanup ticket to yourself or your product manager. Once a ticket is in the system, the retirement can be tracked and prioritized in a future sprint. This approach doesn’t solve the problem of engineering having the bandwidth to prioritize feature flag cleanup tickets, but it does at least start tracking the problem and giving teams a mechanism to manage flag debt.
Split helps with this process, by enabling you to associate a Jira ticket with a feature flag (a “Split”). Split then updates the Jira ticket as a Split status changes. That way, you know in Jira when it’s time to clean-up the code for that Split.
2. Set expiration date for a flag
Another approach is to set an expiration date for a flag at the time of flag creation. An expiration date is simply our best guess of the time when the feature would be fully ramped and hence, the flag would be safe to retire.
The expiration date can be used by your feature flagging system to generate email reports, visual dashboards, or even blaring red signs to warn your team about expired flags that should be removed from code.
In addition, the expiration date of a feature is a valuable piece of documentation. It protects the organization from losing institutional memory if the feature owner leaves the company. By looking at this date, anyone on the team can tell whether the flag should be retired or not.
Some adventurous teams take this idea to its logical extreme by automatically turning off the flag when it is past its expiration date. In other words, feature flags meet chaos engineering. This keeps the engineers on their toes forcing them to retire old flags to avoid an incident in the middle of the night.
Split has a variety of these approaches on our product roadmap, and we are actively working with our customers on how the product should be designed to handle these use cases.
3. Limit the number of flags per team
The problem of flag debt is a “tragedy of the commons.” Individual engineers or teams can create limitless flags for their own benefit while ruining the collective experience of the entire organization. This is because the incremental benefit of creating a new flag far outweighs the incremental pain of a flag that needs to be retired.
This third strategy addresses the problem by localizing the pain of an unretired flag to the team that created it. If we limit the number of flags a single team can create at any point in time, sooner or later the team is going to hit this limit. At that point, they will be forced to retire older flags – whether using expiration date or a cleanup ticket – before they could add the next flag.
Split has granular permissions that enable you to set owners for flags. And, tagging in Split can be used to designate certain splits associated with specific teams in a searchable and less restrictive way. Easily see how many Splits a current team has, and manage to a target goal by using Split.
4. Cleanup flags based on activity
Finally, at Split, we have found that just knowing whether a feature flag is active is very helpful in identifying flag debt that is ready to be cleaned up.
Split customers are able to very quickly see which Splits no longer have any traffic being routed to them. This is a clear sign that a feature rollout our experiment is complete, and is an easy way to audit which flags are ready to be retired. In addition, Split can easily show which Splits have not been modified in over 30 days. For Splits that are for the purpose of feature release or experimentation, this is a good signal that the release may be done or the experimentation complete. The combination of tagging Splits based on type (long-term vs. short-term), plus these activity metrics, go a long way in identifying flag debt for cleanup.
Feature flags are an important technique in your continuous delivery toolbox. However, Pete mentioned how too many flags can also pose an issue, and in this post I have provided additional details on the problems created by creating too many flags. For best results, teams need to be thoughtful of how they manage the lifecycle of feature flags. Pete identified some techniques, and I’ve outlined some ways Split can help solve this problem. If you have seen other techniques used in the past, or want to learn more about how Split can help solve these problems for you, we have additional resources. Learn more by reading our eBook, “Managing Feature Flags,” or contact us to meet with a solution engineer.
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Keystone flags deliver all the safety benefits of feature flagging while minimizing the cruft that those same feature flags can add to your code.